Why Were Arab Leaders Upset By The Sykes-Picot Agreement

Palestinian fighters have been present in Lebanon since they were driven out of Jordan in September 1970. The presence of the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon, with its 5,000 peacekeeping forces, has not prevented the escalation. The U.S. government has been disappointed by the diplomatic failure it has faced in these new regional crises, including the civil war in Jordan and the famous Black September, which led King Hussein to expel Palestinian leaders from his territory. The Americans feared a Syrian invasion of Jordan and felt that the sharp increase in the Russian military presence in Egypt, with more than 15,000 technicians and soldiers, reinforced the destabilization of Arab monarchies. The United States strengthened its naval forces in the Mediterranean and assured Israel against any Soviet intervention. On November 29, 1947, the Assembly passed a plan of division. 33 countries voted for, including the United States, the Soviet Union and France; Britain abstained. The Jews accepted the plan of division, the Arabs strongly rejected it, and hostilities were revived. The agreement was based on the premise that the Triple Agreement took place during the First World War and aimed at other objectives in the defeat of the Ottoman Empire and was part of a series of secret agreements that reflected on its partition.

The first negotiations that led to the agreement took place between 23 November 1915 and 3 January 1916, during which British and French diplomats Mark Sykes and Fran├žois Georges-Picot signed an agreed memorandum. [3] The agreement was ratified by their respective governments on 9 and 16 May 1916. [4] The Russian tsarist allies of the United Kingdom did a little better and advanced into the Caucasus in an offensive that would not collapse until after the outbreak of the 1917 revolution. Russia was to be richly rewarded under the conditions of Sykes-Picot, which it had helped to develop. Leo Trotsky disclosed the details of the secret agreement shortly after the Bolsheviks took power and abandoned the claims on Turkish territory. Jerusalem rejected the plan, despite the risk of jeopardizing its relations with Washington, and instead proposed a partial agreement with Egypt, on the condition of Israel`s withdrawal from the Suez Canal, which opened it up to international traffic, especially Israeli shipping. This agreement was also rejected by The Egyptians who were not willing to make peace with the Jewish state. The Order of Sykes Picot was confronted with a multitude of inconsistencies in the dominant characteristics of the region, many of which were or should have been known to the British and French from the beginning. Nevertheless, they were taken into account in a limited way to enable british strategic objectives at that time, in particular to protect India and there after. In April 1920, the San Remo conference distributed Class A mandates on Syria to France and Iraq and Palestine to Britain. The same conference ratified an oil agreement reached at a London conference on 12 February, based on a slightly different version of the Long Berenger agreement, previously signed on 21 December in London.

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