Washington Naval Conference Agreements

The Washington Navy Treaty, also known as a five-power contract, was a treaty signed in 1922 among the great nations that had won World War I, which declared itself ready to prevent an arms race by limiting shipbuilding. It was negotiated at the Washington Naval Conference from November 1921 to February 1922 in Washington, D.C. and signed by the governments of the United Kingdom, the United States, France, Italy and Japan. It limited the construction of battleships, battlecruund cruisers and aircraft carriers by the signatories. The treaty did not limit the number of other categories of warships, including cruisers, destroyers and submarines, but these vessels were limited to 10,000 tonnes of eviction. The Four-Powers Pact, signed on 13 December 1921 by the United States, Great Britain, Japan and France, provided that all signatories be consulted in the event of controversy between two of them on “any peaceful matter”. An accompanying agreement indicated that they would respect each other`s rights with respect to the various Pacific islands and the mandates they held. These agreements have ensured that there is a framework for consultation between the United States, Great Britain and Japan, the three major powers whose interests in the Pacific are most likely to lead to conflict between them. But the agreements were formulated too vaguely to have a binding effect, and their main reason was that they lifted the Anglo-Japanese alliance (1902; renewed in 1911), which was previously one of the most important means of maintaining a balance of power in East Asia. Another additional document defined Japan`s “island-shaped possessions and dominations.” One of the great British demands during the negotiations was the total abolition of the submarine, which had proved so effective against them during the war.

But this proved impossible, not least because of the French resistance; they requested an allocation of 90,000 tonnes of submarines[15] and the conference ended without agreement on submarine limitation. [16] The American hand was strengthened by intercepting and deciphering the japanese government`s secret instructions to its delegation. The message revealed the lowest navy report acceptable to Tokyo; U.S. negotiators have used this knowledge to push the Japanese. This success, one of the first in the U.S. government`s budding eavesdropping and cryptology efforts, ultimately led to the growth of these agencies. In 1921, U.S. Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes invited nine nations to Washington to .C to talk about the reduction of the navy and the situation in the Far East. The United Kingdom, Japan, France and Italy were invited to participate in discussions on reducing naval capacity, while Belgium, China, Portugal and the Netherlands were invited to participate in discussions on the situation in the Far East. The Naval Conference in Washington revealed three important treaties: the Treaty of Five Powers, the Treaty of Four Powers and the Nine-Power Treaty. Being unpopular with much of the Imperial Japanese Navy and increasingly active and important ultranationalist groups, the value accepted by the Japanese government led to much mistrust and accusation among Japanese politicians and naval officers. [Citation required] Between 1921 and 1922, the world`s largest maritime powers met in Washington, D.C.

to discuss the disarmament of the navy and ways to ease the growing tensions in East Asia. Subsequently, naval arms control conferences were restricted after additional restrictions on naval warfare. The provisions of the Washington Treaty were amended by the Treaty of London of 1930 and the second naval treaty of London in 1936.

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